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Gargano was in the middle of a process of evolution and culture among the most profitable of all of Western Europe and is one example that has been inhabited since ancient times of prehistory. The first traces of human settlement date back to the Palaeolithic: the man's presence is widespread in many areas of Gargano, from Paglicci Cave to Defensola, from the Romandato mouth to the Cave of the Spanish.

Hard and smooth was the transition from the Palaeolithic to the Neolithic. This step led to a different spatial distribution of the settlements and the change of life between the two periods was neither easy nor quick.

In this period forms of life and economy, called of "transition", developed.

In Coppa Nevigata (Manfredonia), for example, the most obvious expression of this transition is an economy no longer based solely on hunting, but also on shellfish harvesting.

The same also applies to the site of Cave Manaccore in Peschici and Macchia di Mare in San Menaio.

Another element of the transition is the emergence of "entrenched villages" in Gargano, important in the process of civilisation of the dauno Neolithic.

In Gargano were found several traces of Campignano, period characterised by tools like tranchet, a hatchet and pickaxe.

The numerous Neolithic settlements in Gargano were connected to each other by frequent business relations with people located to the north west of the Gargano itself as well as with the whole area of ​​the Apennines civilizations.

Confirmation of this is the spreading of a major industry trade of flint, already present in Palaeolithic and Neolithic.